In 1865, the Prussian chancellor Bismarck submitted to Austria a proposal that Austria cede the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein to Prussia for a certain monetary compensation. At the same time, Italy offered Austria a thousand million lire for Venice. Austria flatly rejected both offers, and then Prussia and Italy concluded a pact on a joint attack on Austria. If Prussia attacks Austria, Italy will also attack it. The peace would be concluded so that Italy would get Venice, and Prussia some parts of Austria. On June 23, the Italian army crossed the Minzio, which opened up the southern Italian battlefield, and Austria was drawn into the war on two fronts.
In the Middle Ages, the county of Križevci was the largest county in Northern Croatia. It had exceptional social and political significance, especially the town of Križevci itself, where sabors (assemblies) were held, the most famous of which was the “Bloody Sabor” or the „Bloody Assembly“.
The Zrinski and Frankapan conspiracy is a movement of the Croatian and Hungarian nobility against the absolutist policy of the Habsburgs, which began in 1664 and ended in 1671 with the execution of the main actors of the conspiracy. It arose as a result of specific circumstances in the Hungarian-Croatian Kingdom, which was attacked by the Ottoman invaders, and circumstances in the Habsburg Monarchy, which followed the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48) and the signing of the Peace of Westphalia (1648).
Barbara of Celje was born most probably in 1392 as the daughter of Herman II of Celje and Countess Ana von Schaunberg. Her father was one of the most powerful feudal lords in the Hungarian-Croatian kingdom with large estates in Slovenia and Croatia. He was also a big friend of the then King Sigismund of Luxembourg, whom he even saved by helping to escape the catastrophic defeat of the Ottomans at Nicopolis in 1396. After the death of his first wife Maria Sigismund, he chose the then minor Barbara as his future wife. They married in Krapina in 1405.
The peasant revolt of 1573 was a revolt against the unbearable living conditions of the dependent peasants. The revolt broke out on the estate of Franjo Tahy, affecting Hrvatsko Zagorje and a part of Slovenia, and affected a number of peasant revolts in our area over the next few centuries. According to its organization, it was the most serious revolt of the peasants in Croatian and Slovenian history in order to abolish the political power of the nobility and feudal levies. In the 16th century, the position of the peasants deteriorated due to the increase in natural benefits and their suppression from the trade in agricultural products. The nobility, on which the royal government relied in the fight against the Turks, enjoyed great benefits and all political rights. The disenfranchised peasantry bore all the tax burdens, the state and the church, and especially the heavy urbarial levies of the nobles. Also it was most exposed to the devastation and plunder of the Turks.
Nikola Zrinski became the head of the Szigetvar Fortress in 1561 after the death of Marko Stančić Horvat, a famous captain and defender of Sigetvar during the first Ottoman siege in 1556, at his own request, thus becoming the chief captain of Szigetvar. In 1563, Zrinski took over the duty of general and commander of the defense of the entire Transdanubia and thus placed under his direct control the entire border defense between Lake Balaton and the Drava River. Emperor and King Ferdinand I left Zrinski the opportunity to leave Szigetvar in the event of an Ottoman siege and leave the defense to another commander, but when the Ottoman army approached Szigetvar in 1566, Zrinski decided to stay to defend the city with his soldiers…
Pacta conventa (lat. “Agreed agreement” also called Qualiter (lat. “How”, according to the first word it begins with) is an alleged agreement believed to have been made in 1102 between the Hungarian king Koloman and the Croatian nobility, which the Croatian nobility recognized Koloman for his ruler, and in return he promised them certain privileges, but the authenticity and time of the agreement are disputed, which has been the subject of controversy since the mid-19th century.
The Battle of Nicopolis in 1396 was one of the last (together with the expedition to Varna in 1444) crusades in Europe. In it, the Hungarian-Croatian king and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Sigismund of Luxembourg, tried to defeat and drive away the Turks, who at that time had approached the Hungarian borders. At that time, the Ottoman Empire was a significant military power that, having already taken over most of the Balkans, posed a real danger of penetrating further into Central Europe.
Battle of Mohacs, 1526
The legend of the violent death of King Dmitar Zvonimir appears in several medieval sources. Almost every one of them is of questionable credibility with a hard-to-verify story. However, it is interesting that the violent death (that he was killed) of King Zvonimir is mentioned in several different sources, so that this thesis was evenContinue reading “The legend about the death of King Zvonimir”